Tag Archives: HIV/AIDS

CDC Study Reveals Poverty as Major Contributing Factor for HIV Infection

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States recently released a study showing that in heterosexual communities, people living in poverty are five times more likely than the general population to be infected with HIV. For impoverished communities, where people are living above the poverty line, but not living well, people are two and a half times more likely to be infected.

This just in: Poverty is bad for your health.

Just so we’re all operating on the same page, the current poverty line in the United States is set at an annual income of $10,830 USD for a single person, $22,050 USD for a family of four. There’s a reason I was gravely concerned about the AIDS Drug Assistance program recently. This study shows that people living in poverty aren’t just less likely to be able to access HIV/AIDS treatment, they are also more likely to need that treatment in the first place.

Guess who is most likely to live in poverty in the United States? Black, Native American, and Latin@ populations. People with disabilities. Young people and older adults. We’ve known for a long time that all of these groups are more likely to have health problems as a direct consequence of living in poverty, and this study shows us that poverty is also a key factor in HIV infection rates among these groups. In 23 US cities, we are looking at a ‘generalized epidemic’ in the heterosexual population; that’s a fancy way of saying ‘this is not going away unless we do something about it.’

One obvious solution would be outreach and education programs. Provision of medical care. Access to safer sex supplies. Community education provided by people actually living and working in these communities who can provide that education in an accessible format.

Yet, there are a lot of barriers to doing this. There’s the furor from US conservatives opposed to any kind of community education, outreach, and healthcare when it comes to anything even tangentially related to sex; after all, if we hand out condoms, that’s like saying it’s ok for people to have sex! As Cara Kulwicki points out at The Curvature, there’s also a serious stigma against sex workers when it comes to funding for HIV/AIDS work. Not only do we not want to help sex workers, we don’t want to provide funding to any organisations that work with them.

At Racewire, Kai Wright notes:

Today’s CDC study establishes that the U.S. epidemic is instead best understood as two separate epidemics–one in poor neighborhoods and one in the rest of the nation. That’s because HIV prevalence is a shocking 2.1 percent among heterosexuals in the poor neighborhoods CDC studied. These are explosive findings that ought to fundamentally redefine our understanding of the U.S. epidemic and its gravity.

This study is a stark illustration of intersectionality in action. If we’re going to talk about disparities in HIV infection, we need to talk not just about poverty, but about race, the social structures that cause certain classes of people to be more likely to live in poverty, and the way these systems intertwine.

What the CDC is telling us is that people who live at the intersections of oppression are much more likely than the rest of the population to be infected with HIV, and that this is, in part, our collective fault, for failing to adequately serve vulnerable populations. For failing to address the tremendous class disparities in the United States and for choosing to ignore the clear intersections within those disparities; there is absolutely no reason why entire classes of people should be more likely to live in poverty than others.

Phill Wilson, writing at the Black AIDS Institute, underscores the importance of viewing race and poverty as interconnected, not separate, issues when evaluating the results of this study and the HIV/AIDS epidemic as a whole:

So, the question is: Is race or poverty the driver of HIV in Black communities? We believe this is essentially a difference without a distinction. In America, Black people are disproportionately poor. Almost 25 percent of Blacks live in poverty, compared to 9 percent of Whites. According to a study by U.S. Department of Agriculture, nine out of every 10 Black Americans who reach the age of 75 spend at least one of their adult years in poverty. The uncertainty about why Blacks are disproportionately infected has never been about biological or genetic determinants–or for that matter even difference in levels of risk behavior. It has always been driven by social determinants of health: socioeconomic status, high rates of sexually transmitted diseases, high rates of incarceration, man sharing (knowingly and unknowingly) due to gender imbalances, lack of access to healthcare, lack of a regular health provider and low HIV literacy. These overlap significantly with the issues driving the AIDS epidemic in poor communities of all races.

This study challenges a lot of assumptions about how HIV is understood in the United States. It clearly shows that by focusing on injection drug users and men who have sex with men, we’ve done a tremendous disservice to other communities at profound risk for HIV infection. HIV has been stigmatised from the start, it dovetails very neatly with a number of social oppressions in the United States, and our chickens are coming home to roost now.

Recommended Reading for 02 August 2010

Warning: Offsite links are not safe spaces. Articles and comments in the links may contain ableist, sexist, and other -ist language and ideas of varying intensity. Opinions expressed in the articles may not reflect the opinions held by the compiler of the post and links are provided as topics of interest and exploration only. I attempt to provide extra warnings for material like extreme violence/rape; however, your triggers/issues may vary, so please read with care.

RH Reality Check: Decriminalizing and the Global AIDS Epidemic

The International AIDS Conference’s theme of “Rights here, Right now” was clearly in evidence throughout the five days of the international meeting. An exuberant march through the streets of Vienna, a large human rights networking zone, multiple sessions on various aspects of human rights and numerous poster presentations addressed topics such as rights of sex workers and people with different sexual orientations, monitoring human rights violations, and combating stigma and discrimination. The subject receiving the highest level of attention, however, concerned the law: criminalization of behaviors and groups of people in the context of HIV/AIDS.

MÉDECINS SANS FRONTIÈRES (MSF): HIV/AIDS: The Stories and Trends Behind the Science

Despite the growing evidence that rapid scale up of HIV/AIDS treatment reduces unnecessary death, staves off disease, and reduces transmission of the virus, international donors are wavering and sending the message to scale back treatment plans.

European Disability Forum: From Spain to Belgium: The Disability Itergroup Explores the Job Yet to Be Done

29 July 2010 /// In the whilst of latest European warm wave, slightly before the European Parliament summer break, the Disability Intergroup held two meetings to sum up the achievements of the Spanish Presidency leaving office, and the challenges ahead for the incoming Belgian Presidency. Early July, a second meeting in Strasbourg focused on violence against women with disabilities. Ana Pelaez, one of the leaders of the European disability movement reminded the growing rate of violence against woman with disabilities in the EU.

Change.org’s Race In America Blog: Why Pop Culture Matters to Race Bloggers (Via Racialicious)

It may seem as if race bloggers are exceptionally preoccupied with blogging about pop culture. Indeed, whole sites are dedicated to debating the racial missteps associated with The Last Airbender, with a national boycott of the film underway in protest of the movie’s colorstruck casting. But, before you dismiss these efforts as unimportant, remember that the racial narratives in movies like The Last Airbender don’t just reflect contemporary racial attitudes — they also help define them. In short, challenging these pop culture icons is a key part of understanding — and changing — attitudes towards race in today’s America.

Pizza Diavola: ALERT: HHS Rule Banning Abortion Coverage in High Risk Pools

The Obama administration issued a rule yesterday that denied abortion insurance coverage for women in high-risk insurance pools (limited exceptions for rape, incest, and endangering the life of the woman). What exactly does this mean, aside from the steady eradication of a woman’s right to make decisions about her body, her future, and her reproductive choices herself? Well. The high-risk insurance pools are meant to provide health insurance to people who have been denied access to private health insurance due to pre-existing conditions. As a Planned Parenthood email puts it, these high-risk pools are for “some of the most medically vulnerable women in the country — those with pre-existing conditions such as breast and ovarian cancer, AIDS, diabetes, and other conditions that may make pregnancy extraordinarily dangerous.”

If you’re on Delicious, feel free to tag entries ‘disfem’ or ‘disfeminists,’ or ‘for:feminists’ to bring them to our attention! Link recommendations can also be emailed to recreading[@]disabledfeminists[.]com

Recommended Reading for Wednesday, 21 July 2010

Warning: Offsite links are not safe spaces. Articles and comments in the links may contain ableist, sexist, and other -ist language and ideas of varying intensity. Opinions expressed in the articles may not reflect the opinions held by the compiler of the post and links are provided as topics of interest and exploration only. I attempt to provide extra warnings for material like extreme violence/rape; however, your triggers/issues may vary, so please read with care.

A wheelchair user competing in a marathon, caught in the act of leaning forward for more power.

Photo by Flickr user widdowquinn, Creative Commons License.

Cathy Heffernan at The Guardian: Comment is Free: Stop stonewalling deaf jurors

When I received a jury summons a few years ago, I opened it up excitedly, conjuring up scenarios casting myself as a female version of Henry Fonda in 12 Angry Men, heroically leading my jury through society’s murky prejudices to deliver a landmark decision and liberating an innocent in the process. (I had a rather romantic notion of jury service back then.)

But something stopped me in my tracks. I saw that deaf people were included among “incapable persons” under the list of ineligible people. I was stunned. I’d just graduated from university and yet here I was, considered by the Irish court system as “unfit to serve on a jury”. What’s more, I was expected to meekly sign this summons and return it – in other words, agree to their exemption.

Dr. Rob at Musings of a Distractible Mind: A Letter to Patients With Chronic Disease

Then there is the fact that you also possess something that is usually our domain: knowledge. You know more about your disease than many of us do – most of us do. Your MS, rheumatoid arthritis, end-stage kidney disease, Cushing’s disease, bipolar disorder, chronic pain disorder, brittle diabetes, or disabling psychiatric disorder – your defining pain – is something most of us don’t regularly encounter. It’s something most of us try to avoid. So you possess deep understanding of something that many doctors don’t possess. Even doctors who specialize in your disorder don’t share the kind of knowledge you can only get through living with a disease. It’s like a parent’s knowledge of their child versus that of a pediatrician. They may have breadth of knowledge, but you have depth of knowledge that no doctor can possess.

Oregon Health and Science University: Racism Shapes African-American Women’s Views on Depression Care (via Racialicious)

“These women were extremely wary of most depression treatments and providers they associated with ‘White’ systems of care. Although they acknowledged that violence, depression and substance abuse adversely affected their health, discussions about health care revolved around their perceptions of racism,” said Christina Nicolaidis, M.D., M.P.H., principal investigator and an associate professor of medicine (general internal medicine and geriatrics), and public health and preventive medicine in the OHSU School of Medicine. “Based on our findings, we recommend health and mental health providers endeavor to better understand and acknowledge how racism informs the experiences and perceptions of their patients.”

The expectation of being a “strong Black woman” also was a significant barrier to recognizing depression and seeking care. Co-investigator S. Renee Mitchell has used this finding to launch a campaign asking: “Strong Black woman – what are you burying, your feelings or the myth?” The research team also has organized several community depression and violence awareness events titled “Redefining the Blues.” An additional event is planned for the fall.

Kai Wright at Colorlines: HIV in Poor U.S. Neighborhoods as Intense as Developing World

The first is straightforward: Poverty and HIV are tied in the U.S. To establish this fact, researchers looked at HIV prevalence, or the share of a given population that is infected. They found HIV prevalence in high-poverty neighborhoods to be more than double that of the nation overall. Moreover, within high-poverty neighborhoods, prevalence among people living below the poverty line was double that of those living above it. If silence equals death, so does poverty.

The study’s focus on heterosexual adults is significant and generates the second important finding: that epidemics in poor U.S. neighborhoods are of similar intensity as those in poor nations globally.

Ames Alexander at Charlotte Observer: Advocate for mentally ill to meet Obama

“The president wants to mingle and meet and talk to people with disabilities where the law has made a difference in their lives,” said Andrew Sperling, director of legislative advocacy for the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), a leading group for those with psychiatric ailments.

Cian O’Luanaigh at The Guardian: Comic superhero Echo fights stereotypes of deaf people

Echo uses both American Sign Language (ASL) and a Native American system developed for communication between tribes speaking different languages. The sign systems appear throughout the comic, both when Echo is signing and as background art.